Human Evolution…the history of beginning !!!

Evolution is the change in the inherited characteristics of biological populations over successive generations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organisation, including species, individual organisms and molecules such as DNA and proteins

In the realms of the infinite pages of history, within the magnificent premises of ancient and modern temples, inside the impressive giant laboratories where scientific marvels are put to engineering processes, in the lavish conference rooms of offices and even within the four walls of a simple home, there has always been a recurrent emotion, a persistent thought, since a little later than the advent of time.
Science and Religion dont get along very well.
Where on one hand Science believes in proofs, religion believes in faith.
The problem Science has with Religion is that science wants proofs, analysis, experiments and results. It cant just let religion base every answer on some myth without a sound proof or physical viability of that myth. “Shiva cannot hold up mighty Ganga in his hair because thats not at all possible. So, stop throwing food and polluting it”, science would say

The problem Religion has with Science is that Religion thinks the world needs Science but Science is a bit immature at this stage to understand every possible attribute of the world. Religion says what Science claims as “discoveries” and “inventions” are actually “realizations”, as the concepts, the findings were very much there since the beginning of time, its only later that scientists found it out or realized its existence. Religion says it has answers to all things which science currently doesnt have.
“Ganga is our Goddess and offering obligations to it would bring prosperity in life and taking a dip would rid you of diseases.”, religion would say

At times through this blog, I have brought forward ideas which completely prove the existence of some or the other scientific concept in various symbols and notions of religion through visible and proven facts. At times, there have been no visible facts, but the scientific concepts perfectly match the religious corollaries.

With this post I wish to put forward a religious concept which exists in perfect tandem with a scientific theory. The difference? The proof, in this case, would be the religious concept itself.

It is believed that the cryptic language in which the Vedas are written, turn out to be different for each of its readers. It is also believed that a true seeker of knowledge would get in Vedas what he or she seeks to find and attain.
On one hand the Vedas are known to be the words of God, on the other hand, a certain Nasadiya Shukta of Rig Veda states that maybe the world got formed first and then God came into existence.

The beginning of it all: What science claims as the beginning of earth is the “Big Bang Theory”. Interestingly, Hinduism has a similar concept where a primordial sound is known to be the source of all life on earth when a higher state of Consciousness, OM is believed to have given birth to all of the world. While in Hinduism, Brahma takes care of all evolution and creation processes, science claims it to be Higgs Boson, or the “God particle”, the particle responsible for the Big Bang itself.

Dual Nature of Matter : As per the Brihadranayak Upanishad, there only was the soul. Then, the soul divided itself into male(pati) and female(patni), the soul-mates. The Upanishad mentions that the female turned itself into a cow, so the male turned itself into a bull. In a similar way, everything that exists in pairs was created. If there is Shiva, there is Sati. If there is light, there is darkness.
The above concept closely resembles the law of duality in particles. For every negative, there is a positive. For every south pole, there is a north pole. If there is black, there is white. There are protons, and there are electrons. Even for neutrons, there are anti-neutrons.

Bhagvad Geeta talks of duality of pain and pleasure, of desire and hate, of life and death.

DASHAVATAR : The very elements of Dashavatars are viable proofs of the belief of Hinduism in the theory of evolution. Modern theory of evolution claims that humans have evolved as a gradual process, which resulted in the unfolding of this evolution, forming a chain of species where organisms purely based in water, ie fish, were the first link of that chain.

MATSYA : As per the theory of evolution, Proto-Amphibians that primarily lived in water can be seen as the first stage of life. These creatures first appeared some 540 million years ago.
A starking resemblance is the first Avatar of Vishnu, Matsya Avatar, which was actually a fish that helped Manu save the world. the literal meaning of Matsya is fish.

KURMA : The second step of evolution of life, were creatures that could live on land as well as in water, like
the tortoise. The reptiles appeared almost 385 million years ago on earth.
Kurma Avatar is in form of a tortoise. It becomes a part of the legendary Amrut Manthan where Halahal poison was also churned out, drinking which, Shiva became Neelkanth.

VARAHA : Reptiles gradually evolved to form the semi-amphibians, which later evolved to form first complete animals, which could exist purely on land. They could bear children and walk on land.
Varaha, or the boar was the third Avatar of Vishnu. Interestingly, boar was the first mammal to have whose teeth were at the front, and so didnt swallow food but eat more like humans.

Ironically, Vishnu in this Avatar took earth out of water and placed it in the solar system.

NARSIMHA : The mammals or semi-amphibians gradually evolved to become human-like creatures, which could walk on two legs, used their hands to hold things, but the brain was still not that developed. They had a human like lower body and animal like upper body.
Though not exactly apes, Narsimha Avatar fits into the above description pretty well. Though not a direct reference, it would certainly mean an ape man.
An interesting point here is that those who are aware of the story of Narsimha, he appears at a time, place and setting, where each attribute is in the middle of two things(neither human nor animal, neither at home nor outside, neither day nor night)

VAMANA : Some 5 million years ago, Homo Erectus got evolved. The organisms of this species were much more like humans. They walked on two legs, had lesser facial hairs, and had an upper body like a human. However, they were dwarves
The Vamana avatar of Vishnu could also relate to Neanderthals, which are known to be quite shorter than humans.

PARSURAM : The Rama with the Axe. Finally the first Homo-sapiens arrived and they were hunters and nomads. They were tall, could talk and had tools to hunt down their food.
Parsuram was the first complete human Avatar of Vishnu, the attributes fitting perfectly with that of an early man which could hunt and use tools for his own needs. Parsuram is known for his anger and rage, much like the early man which existed without a proper society in place.

RAMA : Finally, a society is evolved out of needs of humans to live, eat and co-exist. The society has rules, and is God-fearing and abiding. It is important to follow rules, rage and unsocial behaviour is cut down. Fellow humans are respected and people abide to law and order.
Rama, the complete man would be the Avatar that could be called as the perfect social human being. Rama respected and followed rules of the society. He would also respect the saints and kill those who would torment the sages and the oppressed ones.

KRISHNA :  A close friend prompts Krishna as the complete modern man. The theory of survival of fittest comes into play and now humans have become much smarter and has started enjoying music, dance and festivals. There have been war around and feuds within the family. Society has become shrewd and a devious attribute is the need of the time.
It would feel like I am giving a description of Krishna himself. He was smart, devious and a skillfull manager. More like a modern day man.

BUDDHA :  More like futuristic, a stage which we have not yet encountered. Theory of evolution would suggest a drop in the restlessness of the world after some stage, as it could not go on forever, and peace would be restored back in the world. Maybe the avatar of Gautam Buddha, would be Hinduism’s futuristic vision to tell the world what it has in store in the coming times.

The critics of the Dashavatar-evolution analogy claim that Dashavatar were not strictly in the order in which they are famously drawn out. The legends in which they appear do not follow a strict ordering. Also, maybe the relation to theory of evolution is a far fetched theory out of a simple concept of Avatars being there. to defeat evil and sustain life on the earth. Even if this indeed is a far-fetched theory, the analogy is quite fascinating. If Vishnu had indeed decided to take these Avatars, he took them in accordance with the various stages of evolution, which was much later discovered, or shall I say, realized, by Charles Darwin. Gives me one more reason to say, as I did in The Matrix Reloaded, maybe the concepts of Hinduism are such scientific, they apply to every modern and logical concept of the world.

I would like to end the post as of now, and would like to know what you thought about it. If you are on Facebook and are interested in such topics, please click on the link below and like the page which comes up.

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Most of the above texts and knowledge is originally posted by Sapan Saxena.


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The Shiva Sigma…the greatest leader !!!

The Shiva Sigma

So, who are the greatest and most famous villains of Indian mythology?

RAVANA , for sure would make it to the list. There will be Hiranyakashyap, Kansa, Hiranyaksha, Jarasangha…
I know I have deliberately skipped a few names, but kept the above ones because they all share a common bonding with each other. Know what?
Interestingly, they were all devotees of Shiva.
So, here is a group of most dreaded villains of Indian mythology. Yet, they get all pious, religious and respectful, when it comes to Shiva. These men, who would not flinch to take any dreaded step, be it killing their own family, to imprisoning them, to removing every single object of worship from their kingdom on the slightest hint of a threat to their power, were ready to loose it all for Shiva. What command or ‘enchantment’ did Shiva cast over these men? What qualities did Shiva possess that made followers out of them?

When the famous Sagar Manthan took place, all the deities and demons were expecting the Amrit, sooner than later from the sea. That the sea would eject Halahal poison, no one had expected and were unprepared to face the challenges it threw. Once the Halahal poison came out every one got in a fix. No one, including the deities present there had a solution to the problem in front of them, and the poison gradually started poisoning the air and killing humans.
I dont know which scripture to believe, as some claim that Shiva knew he would be able to stop it in his throat using Yoga, while some claim that Parvati’s love for Shiva stopped the poison in his throat. Nevertheless, Shiva attempted what the other deities did not, for the sake of the living world. He drank the most poisonous substance the world had seen and saved millions of lives with his act.
And to think, he wasn’t even waiting for the Amrita, a clear quality of a powerful, and efficient leader.
Let’s see what other qualities he possessed to become one of the greatest leaders of mythology.

The Trusted Aide: So out of all the aides(gana) of Shiva, who do you think is his most favourite aide? An easy guess would be Nandi. So much so, that Nandi forms an integral part of every Shiva temple. Is it because Nandi is also his Vahana? Maybe, but Nandi is known as the principle Gana of Shiva. Not only his Vahana, Nandi is also a door-keeper to Shiva’s abode Mount Kailash. He also is the commander-in-chief of all the Shiva-ganas, and when Ravana attempted to move Shiva from his abode to Lanka, he fought Ravana and even cursed him for his attempts.
Clearly, Nandi is Shiva’s favourite gana. But think of it, did Shiva, as per any of the scriptures say it to Nandi that “you are my favourite”? Or did he say this to anyone else? The answer is no.
There is a management term called “Job Enrichment”, where an individual is delegated more decision making powers and responsibilities. A good leader should never pick up and declare a favourite of his or her out of his team or followers, but rather, keep on delegating more responsibilities on his most efficient men. He should not let others feel the neglect of his favouritism, but let the work of his most efficient aides speak for them. He should thus, in a way, keep a team of most trusted aides, where the employees also feel valued.

Doing the right thing: Ravana was one of the biggest devotees of Lord Shiva. So much so, that he even sacrificed his head not once but ten times when performing an obligation for Shiva(Shiva would give his head back each time, as per legends). Ravana loved and respected Shiva, and Shiva acknowledged the respect that Ravana showed for him. He even asked Ravana to master all the Vedas and spread the message of the Vedas on earth, clearly delegating more responsibilities on him.
Ravana, however, once became adamant to take Shiva from Kailash to Lanka, as he knew that Lanka would be all powerful with Shiva being there. He became adamant and even fought Nandi for the same. When Nandi didnt let him enter, he attempted to lift the mountain itself and take it to Lanka. Clearly, an arrogant attempt by him.
What did Shiva do? The right thing! He didnt hesitate to punish Ravana for the same, and put the toe of his feet on the mountain firmly. Ravana’s hands got stuck beneath the mountains, and if legends are to be believed, Ravana stayed the same way for some thousand years, pleading for forgiveness all the time.
Though a leader should not openly declare his set of favourites, there may be a few followers or employees who would openly acknowledge the credibility of their leader and would place their utmost trust and respect in their leader.What if some decision or attitude of these employees become a deterrent in the overall roadmap of the company or the leader himself? Well, deal it with the Shiva way. Do the right thing.

Attachment to the cause: When Ravana comes to pursue Shiva to move his abode from Kailash to Lanka, lets put in perspective what Shiva had and what Ravana offered. Shiva lived on Mountain Kailash not in any palace or constructed house, but under open nature. Though there are ganas who love and respect Shiva, he treats them more as followers and friends, rather than servants(again an important quality of leaders). The food they must be having would rather be natural fruits and vegetables(though tough to say if Shiva would even need food, he is Mahadev).
Ravana on the other hand, wanted to take Shiva to the Golden Lanka. So, Ravana offered a huge and magnificent palace, hordes of servants, the most delicious of foods and festivities, and all the luxuries which Ravana could give(though Ravana misinterpreted Shiva probably, he is much above the worldly desires).
The point however is, Shiva not only refused Ravana’s repeated attempts, he even punished him, as explained in the aforementioned point.
How many MBA degrees you pursue, whatever management courses you complete successfully and whichever corporate trainings you attend, there is a certain human factor which comes into play when you are leading an organization. Though all these courses and trainings and programs and seminars would teach you to be professional to the core, a leader simply cannot succeed, unless he is attached emotionally to the organization, or the cause which he is supporting. If you are not attached to your organization, and are ready to move to a better organization because it could offer better facilities(or salary?) to you, chances are, you wont be able to attach to your second organization as well(what if a third organization offers even more), and thus would not ever be a good leader.

Byproducts of success: Referencing the Sagar Manthan and the Halahal poison once again. all the deities wanted to get hold of Amrit which was due to come out of the sea, and every deva wanted to be a part of it. However, no one wanted to be a part of the poison. If Indra was ready for Amrit, he should have been equally willing of poison as well.
Everybody loves success, there is no two way about it. Every leader and the people or followers under him are bind together by one simple cause and effort, to succeed. There is no truer a fact than this.
However, at times this success doesnt come so easily. At times it takes a lot of sacrifices and efforts from the seekers of this success. Everyone wants to be a part of success, however a true leader is one, who is equally willing to be a part of the toxic products of success, or the sacrifices which are made in the process.

Value proposition: What exactly is value proposition?
The simplest definition of Value proposition could be “a promise of value to be delivered and a belief from the customer that value will be experienced”
For a leader to believe in a simple notion as above, it would start from his very basic nature. For this, a leader should be able to value even the most basic of stuff around him. He should be able to judge and evaluate every single resource or asset available to him and try to use its value to the maximum.
Once Sati asked if Shiva is Mahadev, why did he live devoid of all luxuries. She asked him to show her his house where they would live after marriage. As Shiva didnt have any, she asked him what protects him from sun in summers. Shiva showed her the valley full of Deodar trees. Then she asked what protects him from rains, Shiva took her to a cave. When she asked where would he keep fire, Shiva showed her the burning pyres.
Imagination is value, and value is imagination. Shiva being a Mahadev never really thought of worldly comforts. Caves or even Deodar trees are not of much value in terms of worldly luxuries, but Shiva found and valued all the resources available to him.

Partners in Equality: One of the most distinct legends attributed to Shiva is that of Ardha-Narishwar.
A composite androgynous form of Shiva and Parvati, the form is depicted as half male and half female, split down the middle.
Symbolically, the form represents that male and female are inseparable from each other. It also represents the law of duality. It also represents the equality of male and female. That both are incomplete without each other, a concept which many legends of Shiva very clearly point to and acknowledge. As per legends, this form has primarily been associated with fertility and growth.
A leader, similarly, no doubt shall treat his subordinates with respect and equality, he shall also have mutual trust and understanding with fellow partners in business. They shall understand that for the cause to be successful or the company to be a success, they all need to work together with one goal in mind. The purpose would be incomplete in the absence of any of them.

Shiva and Krishna are two of the most divine figures of Hindu mythology.

Krishna, Shiva, their legends and their tales have a lot to teach and learn from, in the modern concepts of the world. Then why is it that some people have a problem accepting the divinity of Krishna or Shiva? People claim a lack of ideals and figures to look up to in current times. Why it gets so tough for them to look up and learn from probably the most accessible and most ideal sources of inspiration?

Most of the above texts and knowledge is originally posted by Sapan Saxena. If you liked the above post, please click on Khoj-In Search of lost signs and like the page which opens up.


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Sacred Feminism

Sacred Feminism

“Lord you are greater than my father but just equal to my mother”
-Sage Kanva, Mandala 8, Rig Veda

Re-discovering India. The past was perfect and we are the descendants of the same learned men and women who made and lived in an India so powerful, so exotic and so mystique. Legends and myths will be demystified, ancient sciences explored. Personally, I have always been a huge admirer of the intellect and wisdom of the ancient Vedic men, and if you have been following my posts on a regular basis, that would hardly come as a surprise to you.
The customs they set up, the beliefs they held and the ideas they formulated, particularly, of science and logistics combined with Dharma, is even hard to contemplate in these modern times, let alone implement it.

Each and every small concept of ancient India encapsulated a something bigger and huge within itself.
The Sanskrit word for Geography is Bhugol(Round Earth), and the term is in use much before the scientists were actually able to declare that the earth is spherical in shape.

The text, Manusmriti, interestingly also says that a household where women are treated with respect, Gods come and reside in them. Or, that when a girl attains a marriageable age, she is free to choose her life partner. Or that women have equal rights to Vedic education and equal share in parental property.

The same text at many places uplifts the cause and salutes the status of women. Many people wouldnt even know that Manusmriti even talks of love marriages.

The point of this post, however, is not to discuss on women empowerment or women rights. There are people and organizations better suited than me to do it. With this post, I wish to bring up five names, mostly unheard and unknown, which made a mark in ancient Vedic times, and their acts, which deserve to be iterated time and again, but are mostly lost in the pages of time.

Thanks to the exposure to Vedic education, and a comparatively free and open society, women of Vedic times were epitomes of spirituality and knowledge. The Vedas primarily talk about 27 women-seers in totality. Out of these 27, five names stand out compared to others:

Lopamudra: The wife of Sage Agastya, finds mentions in parts of Rig Veda, where she interacts with her husband and displays her intelligence and caring nature.
Lopamudra was the daughter of King of Vidarbha, and after Agastya married her, she left her luxurious life to live the life of a seer with him. Agastya, however didnt pay much attention to his home and marriage life. Lopamudra created a hymn of two stanzas through which she made Agastya realize his duties.
Mahabharat mentions Agastya performing a penance at Haridwar with the help of his wife, and River Kaveri is her reincarnation.

Ghosha: Vedas often talk about Ashwin brothers, who are also known as the doctors of the Gods. The Vedas claim them to be the source of all Ayurvedic knowledge and that they had the powers to cure any disease. The daughter of creator of these hymns of Vedas, was Ghosha.
Ghosha has been mentioned to be suffering from a disfiguring disease, leprosy in the most probability, as per the descriptions. She finds her mention when she composes two separate hymns in the Vedas.
It is believed that Ghosha, in her interactions with Ashwins helped them grow spiritually and they in turn, cured her disease and allowed her wedding bliss. She is known to be a master of Madhu Vidya or secret learning as per the Vedas and the hymns she has composed.

Gargi: Probably the most enigmatic and the most effervescent of all the female seers of the Vedas, she composed certain hymns which questioned the very origin of all existences. When Kings of those times, like King Janak of Videha performed righteous obligations or Yagna, she would be a part of the dignified participants.
She would often hold discussions and debates with various sages of her times over the existence and concepts of origin and very ideologies of how the entire living and dead world is situated within the realms of earth itself. Such smart were her talks that many a great Vedic men used to fall silence in front of her.
She would often ask that every realm is part of earth itself, but Aakash and Paatal are known to be beyond earth, then where exactly are they situated.
She was one of the Navratnas in the court of King Janaka of Mithila and composed Gargi Samhita

Maitreyi: The brother of Gargi, Mitra of Maithili had a very wise and proficient daughter by the name of Maitreyi. Being in close contact with Gargi since her childhood, she developed an acute thirst for knowledge and wisdom.of the Shastras. The hymns she has composed talks highly of concepts such as introspection and the materialistic needs of the humans.
Maitreyi was well versed in scriptures, and like her aunt, questioned the very setup of the entire society where people spent much time on luxuries and services not helping them to grow spiritually. When her husband, Yajnavalkya, learned sage himself, announced that he would give up all worldly possessions and leave for an acetic life, and that Maitreyi could have his belongings, she decided to accompany him herself.

Saraswati: Interestingly, though Ganga is today the most respected and pious of all the rivers in Hinduism, it never finds a clear and complete reference in the Rig Veda, the oldest of all the 4 Vedas. The river, which actually finds a reference is Saraswati.
It is believed that a majority of discoveries and marvels of ancient technology were devised and conceptualized on the banks of Saraswati, from where it gained a prominent place in Vedas. Saraswati, in female, but without a complete human form, does find its place in Rig Veda, and is said to be a River Goddess and a source of inspiration to the sages and seers.

Apart from these 5, there is a mention of Surya, Ushas, Vagambhrani, but more then often they are either fictional or without a complete human form, like Surya with wings of fire flying in the skies.
Women, in ancient India were even trained physically and were admitted to military and army. They were taught sword fighting and other basic fighting skills and they were never afraid to join ranks with male soldiers in the times of crisis.
Women were given equality in education, choosing their partners for life(swayamvars), even they were allowed to choose not to marry, if they wished to do so. They could become seers, saints and live their life the acsetic way. The position of women only deteriorated during the middle and modern times, and it has taken more than a Herculean effort to reach to a better position where we are today.

With hopes, that the effort would yield results bettering the prospects for future, I would like to bring this post to an end.
Most of the above texts and knowledge is originally posted by Sapan Saxena. If you liked the above post, please click on Khoj-In Search of lost signs and like the page which opens up.


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Science and Technology in Ancient India


Information about science and technology in ancient India are given.the text and information is taken from internet links for additional information are also provided.


Men of older generation used to say that all knowledge is there in the Vedas. Anyone who hears such words will have the first reaction that it is an over confident statement. We should remember here that any sloka in the ancient Hindu manuscripts has more than one meaning.
A Sloka in the 10th book of Rig Veda appears to be written for praising Lord Indra. The technical translation of that Sloka gives the value of pi up to 28 digits accurately. It is not until the invention of the computers that the western mathematicians could get this value up to 16 digits accurately. Here is a test for those who think that a computer can do any calculation. Use the fastest computer available to you and write a program to calculate the value of pi up to 28 digits accurately. You will know how difficult it is.
There were many inventions in the field of science and technology in ancient India. Since many persons of the present generation does not know them, they will be described briefly to enable the readers to have the basic understanding about them.


Who invented Calculus? The western books say that Newton invented Calculus. You can see the Sanskrit mathematics texts by Arya Bhatta and Bhaskaracharya which were written many centuries before Newton that they contain Calculus. For that matter, who invented numbers? The Indians. The ancient Romans did not know the number zero. Ancient Indians knew very large numbers like Mahogham (1 followed by 62 zeros) and the corresponding smaller decimal fractions. Paavuloori Mallana of 12th century wrote Ganitha Sastram in Telugu. One poem in the book starts like this:
“Sara sasi shatka chandra sara saayaka ….”
The meaning appears to be a poetic description of nature. Each word used in the poem has a methematical terminology meaning. It deals with a methematical problem. One grain is placed in the first square of the chess board. Double of that number, are placed in the second square, and so on. How many grains have to be placed in the last square? The poem gives the answer as 18446744073709551614 which is equal to 2 to the power 63.
Who invented Nuclear Physics?
Buddhist teacher Pakudha Katyayana taught atomic theory. Maharshi Kanaada of 3rd century, B.C. wrote atomic theory in Vaiseshika Sutras. Agni Purana gives smaller magnitudes. The smallest of them is called Paramaanu which nearly equals one billionth part of a meter. This value tallies with the size of an organic
molecule calculated by the western scientists. According to the Upanishads, the five elements of the nature are Earth, Water, Air, Fire and Akasa. (The ancient Greek or Roman philosophers did not know Akasa). One can easily guess that the Earth represents the solid state, the Water the liquid state and the Air
the gaseous state. The Fire is the plasma, the fourth state of matter. Western science has not recognized nuclear state as a state of matter, even though some nuclear particles are stable; Akasa means nuclear state. In the ancient Sanskrit text named Anu Sidhdhantam, Maharshi Goutama described three models of
micro-scopes through which atoms and electrons can be seen.
Who were the first to calculate the velocity of light?
The Rig Veda Bhashyam by Sayana Madhava gives the following Sloka praising the Sun:
Yojanam sahasre dve, satadve, dvecha yojane Ekena nimeshardhena kramamaana namosthuthe One Yojana equals 15788.8 meters, and half of Nimesha equals 8/75 fraction of a second. This gives the velocity of light as 325940 km/s. We have to remember here that the above value is an approximate one intended for easy
remembrance, like remembering the value of pi as 22/7. It is better than the value 215000 km/s given by Danish astronomer Ole Roemer in 1676. Having discovered so many things, it is only logical to expect that our ancestors must have used light as the standard for length measurements; after all, modern science considers velocity of light to be a Universal Constant! The word “kramamaana” of the above Sloka has the hidden meaning of gradual minute change. This will be dealt a little later.
Who invented weaving? Many experts agree that primitive gins and spinning wheels originated in India. The earliest samples of cotton fabric were found in the excavations of the Indus Valley. Samples of the most ancient mordant dyeing technique for cotton fabrics, Kalamkari, were also found there. The Kalamkari technique was perfected in South India and the traditional method continues till date. The Puranas describe spinning and weaving that match the modern concept of an industry. The weaving industry involved specialized factories working in association with domestic industries and paid at piece rates. The fibers used for spinning and the fabrics produced were of the most varied types, unparalleled in any other country during that period. Indians were exceptional for their skills in spinning and weaving which have not been surpassed by peoples of other lands even in historic past. Pliny’s Natural History informs that India exported to Rome large quantities of sheep wool, woolen fabrics, colored carpets, silks, cotton clothes, and fabrics ranging from coarse canvas to textiles of the finest texture. Ancient Indians had the reputation of making the thinnest saree that could pass through a finger ring. During the reign of Julius Caesar, the Roman Emperor, the British did not know weaving and lived naked.
Who invented the guns?
Some people in medieval Europe heard of powerful fire
weapons of the India. Marco Polo (in 13th century) was
financed by the king of his country with the specific
purpose of finding the secret of the Indian fire
weapons. Marco Polo was given gold coins and precious
stones. He also brought some prostitutes to woo people,
if necessary. He first tried to find the secret in the
Punjab region. They pointed a gun at him saying ” Get
out of our country. Else, we will shoot you with this
very gun”. He then came to south India and tried for
the secret. The south Indians were more tolerant. They
told him that the secret is not known to the public.
The engineers who made the guns reside in the king’s
fort generations. The guns were kept in the armory and
the public might not have even seen a gun. The guns
were brought out only at the time of emergency like a
war. A few persons gave hint to Marco Polo that the
knowledge of making gun powder was given to the Chinese
when some Indians visited them in ancient times. Then
Marco Polo went to China, but he could not find any
guns there. The gun powder was used there for making
some festival fire crackers and rockets. He took
samples of the gun powder and returned to Europe. We
know that the gun powder consists of niter, sulphur and
charcoal powder. Natural niter was scarce in Europe,
and what they could get from other lands was not that
pure. The world’s purest niter in its natural state is
available in the mines of India. The other problems
faced by the Europeans in making the guns are lack of
good metallic alloys to make the bodies of the guns and
the non-availability of good machine tools for making
them. Manufacture of the guns fell into temporary
oblivion because most of them back-fired or exploded.
How did the British conquer India? Not with their guns.
The first war between the Indians and the British took
place at Mysore during reign of Hyder Ali. The
casualties on the British side was 90 percent and those
on the Indian side was 10 percent. The British realized
that their weapons were inferior to those used by the
Indians. The Indians had rockets and missiles besides
guns and cannons. What is a Sathagni? Most of us think
that it is cannon. Satha means 100 and Agni means fire;
it is a missile containing 100 bullets. It is launched
from a cannon. It explodes after reaching its
destination. Sanskrit manuscripts like Sukra Neethi
Sastra contain many formulas for making gun powder. The
first item exported by the then British East India
company was Indian niter.
According to Sir A. M. Eliot and Heinrich Brunnhofer (a
German Indologist) and Gustav Oppert, all of whom have
stated that ancient Hindus knew the use of gunpowder.
Eliot tells us that the Arabs learnt the manufacture of
gunpowder from India, and that before their Indian
connection they had used arrows of naptha. It is also
argued that though Persia possessed saltpetre in
abundance, the original home of gunpowder was India. In
the light of the above remarks we can trace the
evolution of fire-arms in the ancient India.
Who invented the ships?
Some persons may argue what is a ship. Read the
definition of a ship:
Europe has only soft wood trees. The ships made of
those woods are good for sailing the Mediterranean or a
smaller sea. They are no good for sailing on the
oceans. The ship of Vasco de Gama was about to collapse
when it reached India. It is the Indian marine
engineers who repaired that ship and made it worthy
again for sea travel. Which country has the trees that
provide the hardest wood? India. The Sanskrit name for
deodar tree was Deva Tharu, the tree that gives the
best wood; it is native to India. Other hard woods like
teak and mahogany are also native to India.
J. Ovington, Chaplain to the British King, the
seventeenth-century English traveler, who visited
Surat, wrote a book “A Voyage to Surat in the Year
1689″. He was impressed by the skill of the Indians in
ship-building and found that they even outshone
Europeans. The timber used by the Indians was so strong
that it would not ‘crack’ even by the force of a bullet
so he urged the English to use that timber ‘to help
them in war’. Indian Teak stood firmer than the English
Oak, remarked Ovington.
Rig Veda mentions ships with 100 oars. Such ships
sailed over seven oceans and returned to India.
Visitors to India from Greece and Rome during the
pre-Christian times wrote that the Brahmins of India
knew that the earth is in the form of a globe and one
can reach the same place after sailing through the
seven oceans. The Buddhist Jataka stories wrote about
large Indian ships carrying seven hundred people. In
the Artha Sastra, Koutilya wrote about the Board of
Shipping and the Commissioner of Port who supervised
sea traffic. The Harivamsa informs that the first
geographical survey of the world was performed during
the period of Vaivasvata. The towns, villages and
demarcation of agricultural land of that period were
depicted on maps. Brahmanda Purana provides the best
and the most detailed description of world map drawn on
a flat surface using an accurate scale. Padma Purana
says that world maps were prepared and maintained in
book form and kept with care and safety in chests.
Surya Siddhantha speaks about construction of wooden
globe representing earth and marking of horizontal
circles, equatorial circles and further divisions. The
second item exported by the erst while British East
India Company was Indian ship. A few of these ships are
still in service, and are used for training cadets of
the British Navy. During World War II, Maharajas of
India have lent some hundreds of their ships to the
British for use as hospital ships.
Who invented steel?
The Rig Veda mentions “wootz” steel. Evidence for the
manufacture of steel in ancient times is available in
South India. The Arabians used to make a lot of money
by selling Indian steel ingots to Europe. In 1746, the
queen of Britain had sent a scientist named Benjamin
Hauntsman to India to obtain the secret of making
steel. Hauntsman stayed in India for some years, went
back to Britain and submitted a report to the queen.
Some historic records say that he did not write the
main secret and he started his foundry in his native
town. How the secret reached Henry Bessemer is
unnecessary for us because his process was essentially
the Indian crucible method of making steel. Another
Indian contribution to industries in Europe was the
process of casting. The frames of machine tools of that
time were made of wood. Good mechanical devices like
clocks did exist in Britain as early as 1300s. They
were works of skilled crafts persons and were not
products of precision machine tools. It was not until
the structures of the machine tools were cast using
Indian casting method and their other components were
made of hard metals using Indian steel making method,
the high precision machine tools could be made. The so
called Industrial Revolution of Europe in the 1800s
heavily depended on this.
Who invented the aircraft?
India had many ancient Sanskrit texts on aeronautics.
The Yantra Sarvaswa of Maharshi Bharadwaja, Vimaana
Chandrika of Maharshi Narayan, Vyoma Yaana Tantra of
Sounaka, and Vyoma Yaanarka of Dandi Natha are some of
them. They contained topics like Maargadhi Karana
(Navigation and control of speed during flight),
Lohaadhi Karana (alloys used for various components of
the aircraft) and Saktyaadhi Karana (production and
usage of various fuels used in aircrafts). Para Sabda
Grahakata is a subject of monitoring the flight tracks
of aircrafts, navigatory communication system, and
monitoring the conversation of the pilots in the
aircrafts. Maharshi Gouthama mentioned 32 models of
aircrafts used in Treta Yuga; only one model among
them, called Pushpaka Vimaanam, became popular in the
Ramayana. The Vaimaanika Sastra describes Tripura
Vimaanam that uses solar powered engine to travel at
three levels – on the land, under the surface of water,
and in the air. Sakuna Vimaanam is a cross between an
aircraft and a rocket – a space shuttle. The British
have robbed most of our Sanskrit manuscripts during
their rule in India. In 1895, Sivasankar Thalpad of
Bombay had constructed an aircraft with an engine which
flew to an altitude of 1500 feet. He was a Vedic
scholar and used to teach at the J.J. School of Arts.
He obtained the technology from some rare Sanskrit
manuscripts. He also wrote a book in Marathi named
Praacheena Vimaana Vidye Chaasodha. Lalaji Rayanji,
Maharaja of Baroda, was one of the many witnesses who
had seen the flying of that aircraft. After the
untimely death of Prof.Thalpad, his legal heirs sold
all his scripts and materials to the British. (You can
check the year of flying of Wright Brothers).
Who invented powder metallurgy?
The Indians. The iron pillar in Delhi which does not
get rust even today is the proof for it. It is not the
only one of its kind; there are many more scattered
through out in India. The Russians who took scrapings
from the pillar confirmed that it is made using powder
metallurgy technology. The so called space-age
technology of today can make only small pieces using
powder metallurgy; they are generally used as tips in
cutting tools. How could our ancients make such a big
pillar using powder metallurgy? The pillar is like a
time capsule – it is challenging the world. Can we rise
to the pinnacles of achievement to which our ancients
had reached?
Who invented nuclear weapons? You may have heard about
the great Astras mentioned in our Puranas. But you may
not have read about them in detail:
“The Mahabharata – an ancient Indian epic compiled
3000 years ago – contains a reference to a
terrible weapon. Regrettably, in our age of the
atomic bomb, the description of this weapon
exploding will not appear to be an exaggeration:
‘…. a blazing shaft possessed of the effulgence
of a smokeless fire (was) let off…’. That was
how this weapon was perceived. The consequences of
its use also evoke involuntary associations. ‘…
This makes the bodies of the dead unidentifiable.
… The survivors lose their nails and hair, and
their food becomes unfit for eating. For several
subsequent years the Sun, the stars and the sky
remain shrouded with clouds and bad weather’. This
weapon was known as the Weapon of Brahma or the
Flame of Indra……”[1].
Who invented plastic surgery? The Indians. It is fully
described by Maharshi Susruta, the ancient Ayurvedic
surgeon, in his Samhita. Who invented acupuncture? The
Indians. Who invented the martial arts? The Indians.
Who invented the remote sensing and imaging techniques?
The Indians. Who discovered Advanced Astrology? The
Indians. Who discovered Advanced Astronomy? The
Indians. Who discovered Groundwater Hydrology? The
Indians. We can read Brihat Samhita of Varaha Mihira;
the Indian method is better than the modern techniques
of using space satellites. Who were the first to
construct planned cities with high technology
infrastructures for water supply and sewerage? The
Indians. Who invented the hanging bridges? The Indians.
Chinese who visited India a few thousands of years ago
wrote about our hanging bridges which used steel beams
and steel ropes. Who discovered higher philosophy? The
Indians. Were there Doora Sravana and Doora Darsana
machines in ancient India? Yes. Did our ancients knew
radars and laser weapons? Yes, the techology was given
in the Sanskrit manuscript Samarangana Sutra Dhara.
Who discovered Irrigation Engineering? Another name for
India was Yilaa Varta. The hidden meaning of this name
is Jala Maaruta, the country of water laden winds. No
other country in the world has monsoons. The rainfall
in India is more than the total rainfall in the rest of
the world. India is the land of mighty rivers – and
that in a very large number that outnumber all other
countrie. In the olden days, the water flow rate in the
Ganga exceeded that of any other river in the world.
The people of South India built and maintained an
extensive system of irrigation tanks and associated
canals with extraordinary managerial and social skills.
They shared the waters following the ways of nature
from time immemorial. Construction of small dams at
every possible location was carried out with such
completeness that a British engineer of the 19th
century thought that it would be impossible to add
another tank to that irrigation system. It was a marvel
of Indian engineering and human cooperation. Nothing
like it existed else where in the world at any time in
the past. While peasants of other countries broke their
backs to reap one harvest, the Indians produced two or
three bumper crops a year. The harvest in the Krishna
and Kauvery river basins was large enough to meet the
needs of rest of our country during periods of crisis.
Visitors from Europe and China in pre-Christian times
wrote that India was a land of plenty. Our Buddhist and
Jain religious records also say the same thing. Who
were the first to postulate the infinity of the
universe and the plurality of inhabited worlds like the
earth? The Indians. The Vishnu Purana says that the
earth is merely one of thousands of millions of
inhabited worlds like itself to be found in the


Why India was called Bhaarata Desam? Most of the people
of the present generation think that India was named
after emperor Bharata. This interpretation is probably
not very old, may be some hundreds of years. Is there
any other land in the world which is named after a
male? Religions of all lands treat the earth as a
female, the mother goddess. Before the spread of
Christianity, all countries in Europe were named after
the local mother goddesses. The same is true for all
other lands in the world. Among all countries in the
world, India has inherited the largest number of
ancient manuscripts from time immemorial. They were
written on the widest range of subjects known to
humans. Indians were the originators of all higher
knowledge in the ancient times. What is impossible for
our Maharshis of yore? A Telugu poet wrote the
following line: “Pogadaraa nee thalli bhoomi
Bhaarathini” – praise your mother land Bhaarati! India
was named after Bhaarati (Saraswati), the goddess of
knowledge. No other ancient civilization of the world
could claim this coveted title. The world’s oldest
educational institutions were located in India, and
scholars from China and Europe used to come here for
learning. Another hidden meaning of the name Yilaa
Varta is Bhaarati Aalaya, the temple of goddess
So much for the psyche of the Indians, but we are
psychosomatic beings. The mind is in-separable from the
body. Hence, is there anything in the bodies of Indians
which shows the blessings of goddess Bhaarati? Yes.
During the second word war, the British military
doctors who conducted autopsy on the dead found that
the pineal gland of the Indians is much larger than
that in the British. The pineal gland is the third eye.
It is the seat of higher knowledge according to the
esoteric teachings in medieval Europe. Sanskrit texts
on Yoga and Tantra also say the same thing. The largest
group among foreign computer programmers in the U.S.A.
at present are the Indians, they account for more than
The Birla Science Center at Hyderabad has produced some
alloys after studying some Hindu manuscripts like
“Vimaana Sastra” and “Amsu Bodhini”. The alloys possess
some extra-ordinary properties which are unknown to the
western countries.
Indian aeronautics
How are the next generation computers are going to be
designed? We have a dual-core Pentium processor which
is replacing the old one. But, the development will not
be faster that way, because they still use electron
currents. We all know that light travels faster than
electron current. When they use laser flows instead of
electron flow using Raman Effect discovered by Sir
C.V.Raman, Nobel Laureate, the next big revolution in
making computers will take place. Some researchers in
U.S.A. are already working in this line. The next
drawback in a computer is that the Numeric Co-Processor
in the C.P.U. works according to arithmetic logic. We
know that the result of multiplying an eight digit
number with another eight digit number cannot be
obtained in one step. But ancient India knows a very
unique method which gives this answer in one step – the
Vedic mathematics. If the Numeric Co-Processor was to
be designed using Vedic mathematics, each personal
computer will work like a super computer even with the
present day computer hardware.


Our ancient seers did not use light as a standard for
length measurement. Albert Einstain found that light
bends if it passes by the side of a large mass. How can
that “which bends” be called unchangeable? Every
created thing is subject to change by time; there is
nothing like an universal constant. And the velocity of
light is no exception to this law. The velocity of
light of our Sun was greater in Krita Yuga than what it
is now, even if it is by a small fraction. The velocity
of light is proportional to the stored energy in the
Sun or any other star. Modern science also accepts that
the Sun has lost a lot of energy over billions of
years. Then, there must be some other stars in the
universe which have greater stored energies than the
Sun, and are emitting light which is faster than that
of the Sun? Yes. Modern science will confirm this after
it develops more sophisticated equipment than what they
have at present.
Why then are we not able to use our own ancient knowledge?
It is a law of nature that everything in creation must go
through cycles of time. The period of light must be
followed by a period of darkness, and the period of
wakefulness must be followed by a period of sleep. And the
period of happiness must by followed by a period of
sorrow; otherwise, the human mind will not give the due
value to happiness. After a period of sorrow, the
happiness that comes next will be much more heartening.
Hence, according to that law, the higher psyche of Indians
is at sleep now. Will it wake up in the near future? Can
we see it during our own life time? Yes. Some astrologers,
both Indian and Western, have predicted that India will
awaken to a part of its prestigious glory in about two
decades from now. One visioner wrote:
“(In India), good character and culture will be
inculcated in all spheres of life. …. Due to the
scientific progress achieved by India and her increased
amity with America, Indian society will shed its
degenerate culture and become progressive. By 2020,
Indian society would have significantly expanded its
thinking. …. Spiritual books, originating from India,
will become extremely popular and command a global
audience. From 2010, winds of spiritualism will blow
across the entire world, awakening more and more people
in its wake. Where limits of (modern) science end,
spiritualism begins. …. Along with scientific
progress, intellectuals will start recognizing the
importance of spiritualism. …. From 2050, a new era
will begin….”[2].
I have also done some astrological calculations and
agree to the lines quoted above. This is further
backed-up by science and technology in our Hindu
scriptures. They are the invaluable assets given by our
ancestors. They will definitely help India to rise.


[1] Alexander Gorbovsky, Riddles of Ancient
History, The Sputnik Magazine, Moscow, Sept. 1986,
p. 137.

[2] Swami Dattavadhut, Prophecies 1998 to 2100,
Vanita Books, Mumbai, 1997, pp. 33-42.